Computing Systems

Standards > Computing Systems

People interact with a wide variety of computing devices that collect, store, analyze, and act upon information in ways that can affect human capabilities both positively and negatively. The physical components (hardware) and instructions (software) that make up a computing system communicate and process information in digital form.

By the end of grade 2

  • Individuals use computing devices to perform a variety of tasks accurately and quickly. Computing devices interpret and follow the instructions they are given literally.

  • A computing system is composed of software and hardware.

  • Describing a problem is the first step toward finding a solution when computing systems do not work as expected.

By the end of grade 5

  • Computing devices may be connected to other devices to form a system as a way to extend their capabilities.

  • Software and hardware work together as a system to accomplish tasks (e.g., sending, receiving, processing, and storing units of information).

  • Shared features allow for common troubleshooting strategies that can be effective for many systems.

By the end of grade 8

  • The study of human-computer interaction can improve the design of devices and extend the abilities of humans.

  • Software and hardware determine a computing system’s capability to store and process information. The design or selection of a computing system involves multiple considerations and potential trade-offs.

  • Troubleshooting a problem is more effective when knowledge of the specific device along with a systematic process is used to identify the source of a problem.

By the end of grade 12

  • The usability, dependability, security, and accessibility of devices within integrated systems are important considerations in their design as they evolve.

  • A computing system involves interaction among the user, hardware, application software, and system software.

  • Successful troubleshooting of complex problems involves multiple approaches including research, analysis, reflection, interaction with peers, and drawing on past experiences.